Archive for the ‘Mrauk-U’ Category


The Author

Tun Shwe Khine was born in Rambyae, Rakhine State in 1949; graduated from Yangon University in 1972 and obtained master degree in Geography in 1976. He has served as a tutor in Yangon Worker’s College; assistant lecturer and registrar (2) in Sittway Degree College. Now he is the Registrar (1) of Sittway Degree College. He has written several research articles and books, and edited some books, magazines and journals.

Some of his works excluding articles are as follows:
(1) Rakhine State Regional Geography (in Myanmar),
(2) Ancient Cities of Rakhine (in Myanmar),
(3) The History of Rakhine Dynasty (in Myanmar),
(4) The Thet Tribe in Northern Rakhine (in Myanmar),
(5) Rakhine Buddhist Art in Vesali Period (in Myanmar),
(6) Rakhine Folk-Tales (in Myanmar),
(7) Earlier Writers in Rakhine (in Myanmar),
(8). 4 Study of Rakhine Minthami Aye-gyin (in Myanmar),
(9)The History of Rakhine Mahamuni (in My anmar and English) and
(10) Historical Sites in Rakhine (in English).

PREFACE

Mrauk-U, a fine last royal capital of Rakhine has scenic beauty and historical remains which are inextricable and remarkable. Innumerable pagodas belonging to all ages can be found throughout the city. Everywhere one looks within Mrauk-U city wall on every mound, every field and every hill are Buddha images, temples, sima(Thein) and pagodas.

It is no wonder that Mrauk-U is popularly known as the ‘Land of Pagodas’ and Europeans remarked Mrauk-U as ‘The
Golden City’. The Rakhine of those days were proud of Mrauk-U. They were entirely satisfied to be the inhabitants of Mrauk- U. The history shows what happened in the city in early times.

Mrauk-U was founded in 1430 A.D. and became the seat of the Rakhine dynasty of that name. It had attained its highest prosperity for 355 years til! 1785 A.D. Before Mrauk-U, several other former royal cities, Dhanyawaddy, Vesali, Sambawet, Pyinsa, Parein, Launggret , Hkirt and Nayyinzaya-taungngoo had flourished from generation to generation for many years (see chapter 2).

Geographically, Mrauk-U lies at the head of a tributary, Kaladan River, about 45 miles from the sea coast, but the largest sea-going ships of that period could reach it through a network of deep creeks by which it was surrounded. Mrauk-U’s unique position in the Bay of Bengal, with both land and sea routes to the east and west, resulted in the development of its commercial and cultural centre which later emerged as a highly flourishing country because of its strategic location between India and South East Asia. It also received Buddhist religion and Indianized civilization from the west.

A visitor, Schouten, a Dutchman who visited the area in 16th century A.D , remarked that the city was comparable in size and wealth to such western cities as Amsterdam and London. He also mentioned that it was the richest city among the ports of Asia. The city was called by the Europeans as ‘Golden City’. That term applies very fittingly to Mrauk-U whose wealth depended mainly on its extensive regions of rice land which surrounded the city. The crops never failed because of an annual 200 inches of rainfall. The export of rice increased from year to year. Moreover, the goods were allowed to enter the city duty-free in order to encourage trade. Thus the city was crowded with a large number of foreign merchants from the neighbouring countries and western countries as well, such as the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Various kinds of goods were on sale in the markets of Mrauk-U.

The export of elephants was most popular in the Mrauk- U period. An elephant cost 1300 silver coins in those days. The Portuguese and the Dutch were permitted to build a factory at Aungdat port in Mrauk-U. Since a ship after leaving Bengal on a voyage to Java or any city on the eastern coast, and did not sail straight across the bay had to keep to the coast. Hence, trading ships naturally put. in at Mrauk-U to replenish food, water and other necessities.

In this way Mrauk-U became usual focus for trade on the eastern shore of the Bay of Bengal. Mrauk-U, therefore, was very prosperous during those days. At the beginning of the 16 century the sea-faring- nature of Rakhine was even more accentuated. The King Minbin (1531-1553 A.D.) was able to build a large naval fleet with modern cannon to guard the long coastal territory of about one thousand miles. According to the Magh Raider in Bengal it had ten thousand warboats and their cannon were so numerous that flotilla exceeded the waves of the sea. Now, several types of old cannon can be seen in Mrauk-U ‘Museum.

Mrauk-U was built as a defence city by the kings of those days. Taking advantage of the ridges surrounding the city, the citywalls have been built by joining the higher points of the ridge. The walls were built with local sandstone and earth. Inside the wail some portions of the mountain had to be levelled at the appropriate points to make ramparts. Some secret paths were constructed from top to bottom and stone gates had been erected for going in and out. Above them some bulwarks or forts were provided with modern artillery. A maze-like chain of lakes and moats were also constructed both inside and outside the city walls. These moats and water tanks not only supplied fresh water
for the inhabitants but also provided a measure of defence.

Besides the venerable pagodas, visitors of today can see citywalls, moats, ramparts, watch towers and forts as the most interesting archaeological remains. They were all constructed with well-fitting cemented stones and they remain in good condition up to the present time.

Some Japanese samurai came to Mrauk-U in 1623 A.D and served as domestic guards of Mrauk-U kings. Because of their valiant and incomparable swordsmanship they were selected as royal bodyguards by the kings.

The dynasty of Mrauk-U had successfully defended itself against all foreign invaders for many years. A few wars were fought, which ended in victory for the Rakhine kings. No civil strife had ruined the peasantry of Mrauk-U. Because of Buddhist teaching and an efficient administrative code, law and order had been maintained in the whole of the kingdom.

The kingdom of Rakhine was divided into twelve prov- inces, each administered by a governor who pledged allegiance to the king.

It was the traditional obligation of the time for the governor of the provinces to build pagodas in the royal city of Mrauk-U.The people of Mrauk-U also offered very lavishly to religious causes. A pagoda, 400 feet to the east of Shitthaung Pagoda, was said to have been donated by a woman who sold fish-jelly, (Rakhine term Ngapithama). This pagoda has been known as Ngapithama Pagoda.

Monuments seem to overwhelm the landscape of the city of Mrauk-U. The whole city has numerous lakes, pagodas, traces of buildings and other vestiges indicating that it was the site of a once-important city. These monuments are of different sizes and of various types. They are in varying stages of preservation and disrepair.

Some of these have been repaired and restored by public donors. Most of them were demolished not by unruly people but by the tropical monsoon climate.

Nevertheless, these mounds of bricks here and there remind us of the site of the ancient Mrauk-U, once a splendid capital of Rakhine.

Read MORE <>>A GUIDE TO     MRAUK – U     An Ancient City of Rakhine, Myanmar by Tun Shwe Khine


Author

U Shwe Zan is a native of Rakhine Slate Myanmar Naingngan. He passed B.Sc. from University of Yangon in 1952. Joined Burma (Myanmar) Civil Service (Sr.Br.) in 1954. Served as a Senior Branch Officer, Selection Grade Officer and Senior Administrative Officer in different posts at different places in the Union of Myanmar for 24 years.

Elected as a member of Rakhine State Peoples’ Council in 1978 and served as Secretary of State Council for two successive terms and Chairman of the State Judges Committee for the third term.

During tenure of his Slate Committee Service he look the responsibility of editorship and publisher of the Rakhine Stale Magazine issued in commemoration of the lOlh an-niversary of the Rakhine Stale and served as Chairman of the Publishing Committee of Mrauk-U Lan Hnyun(n guide to Mrauk-U) in 1988. Acted also as Chairman of the Compilation Committee of Rakiiine State Gazetteer comprising (5) volumes (unpublished).

THE GOLDEN MRAUK-U , An Ancient Capital of Rakhine

U Shwe Zan

Second Edition
1997

Mrauk-U is an ornament of the Rakbine culture. Its name suggests the fulfilment of endeavours. Between 1430 AD and 1785 AD it was the last capital of the powerful Rakhine kings where Rakhine culture had
its full bloom.

The golden days of Mrauk-U city, those of 16th and 17th centuries, were contemporary to the days of Tudor kings, the Moghuls, the Ayuthiya kings and Inwa, Taungoo and Hanthawaddy kings of Myanmar.

Mrauk-U was cosmopolitan city, fortified by a 30-kilometer long fortification and an intricate net of moats, and canals. At the centre of the city was the Royal Palace, looming high over the surrounding area like an Asian Acropolis. Waterways formed by canals and creeks earned the fame of distinct resemblance to Venice.

Mrauk-U offers some of the richest archaeological sites in South-East Asia. While Bagan is considered as the city ofpagodas,Mrauk-U, the last stronghold of the Mrauk.-U kings could be truly considered as the fortress city in Myanmar.

Mrauk-U’s rich heritage is evidenced by many magnificent monuments and pagodas as the massive Sbitethaung that houses a rich array of Lord Buddha’s previous lives and also the figurines of Rakhine culture of that period. The colossal Htukkant Thein, an ordination hall with several images exhibiting clothing popular in the 16th century, richly decorated central pillar of Anndaw Thein, auspicious Lemyathna Pagoda, coloured plaque Laung-bwannbrauk Pagoda, conical structures of victory pagodas

Mrauk-U is an ornament of the Rakbine culture. Its name suggests the fulfilment of endeavours. Between 1430 AD and 1785 AD it was the last capital of the powerful Rakhine kings where Rakhine culture had its full bloom.

The golden days of Mrauk-U city, those of 16th and 17th centuries, were contemporary to the days of Tudor kings, the Moghuls, the Ayuthiya kings and Inwa, Taungoo and Hanthawaddy kings of Myanmar.

Mrauk-U was cosmopolitan city, fortified by a 30-kilometer long fortification and an intricate net of moats, and canals. At the centre of the city was the Royal Palace, looming high over the surrounding area like an Asian Acropolis. Waterways formed by canals and creeks earned the fame of distinct resemblance to Venice.

Mrauk-U offers some of the richest archaeological sites in South-East Asia. While Bagan is considered as the city of pagodas,Mrauk-U, the last stronghold of the Mrauk.-U kings could be truly considered as the fortress city in Myanmar.

Mrauk-U’s rich heritage is evidenced by many magnificent monuments and pagodas as the massive Sbitethaung that houses a rich array of Lord Buddha’s previous lives and also the figurines of Rakhine culture of that period. The colossal Htukkant Thein, an ordination hall with several images exhibiting clothing popular in the 16th century, richly decorated central pillar of Anndaw Thein, auspicious Lemyathna Pagoda, coloured plaque Laung-bwannbrauk
Pagoda, conical structures of victory pagodas

Inscribe this cultural and historical book to my late parents-U Tha Zan Oo (Retired District and Sessions Judge) and Daw Ma Bu, and to my late elder brother Professor U San Tha Aung (former Director-General of Higher Education Department) in token of personal regard and of my sincere admiration for his learning and his works.

Read MORE <>> THE GOLDEN MRAUK-U , An Ancient Capital of Rakhine by U Shwe Zan


Mrauk U – A Cultural Heritage Site

Natural Heritage

  1. Significance of ecological systems and natural heritage
    • Myanmar is a land of wonders. Among the wonders of Asia in the Union of Myanmar,
    • Marauk U in Rakhine State is a notable wonder from a period between Bagan and
    • Konbaung Dynasties of Mainland Myanmar, bridging two important periods of the
    • History of Myanmar.
    • Mrauk U is located in Rakhine, the southernmost region of the Union of Myanmar.
    • Mrauk U is in the strong strategic location surrounded by mountains and hills.
  2. Undisturbed environments or environments demonstrating natural process at work i.e. wetlands, wilderness areas, or coastal areas
    • The unique characteristics of the topography are the tiers of hills and mountain ranges around Maruk U.
    • Between the hills and Mountains are natural passes, fenced with earth walls and shore walls.
    • Mrauk U is located within the seacoast, encircled with a natural water system
    • Rivers and creeks are fed and activated by the ebb and flow of the tide.
    • Mrauk U region stood in the fertile valley between Kispanaddi and Lemro Rivers which meander through fammland passing fishing village.
    • Mrauk U straddles the banks of Aungdat Chaung, a tributary of the Kispanddi 72 km from the western coastline.

  3. Existence of rare and unique species present as the site
    • “Thazin” flower orchards
    • Fish and marine products
    • Migratory wild birds

    Cultural Heritage

  4. Significance of the existing cultural and historical resources
    •  

      Mrauk U is a vast treasure house of the cultural legacy of Myanmar where densely populated ancient cities of Rakhine flourished in continuity.

    • Mrauk U was founded by King Min Saw Mon in the year AD 1430 and it was the capital of Rakhine for about 355 years, Its glory lasted over the reign of 48 kings. Mrauk U, then ceased to be the capital when the Kingdom fell to Myanmar King in 1785.
    • Records show that in the period between Wethali and Mrauk U eras, about AD 1200, some capital cities were moved and new cities founded at Lemro, Puring, Naryizaya and Caungyet.
    • Innumerable pagodas and Buddha images are present all over Mrauk U and the surrounding hills.
    • The Shithaung or Ran Aung Zeya Pagoda is a temple of 80,000. A place full of small images, scenes in sculpture of Buddhist shrines with the kings and queens countries and common people are portrayed in their medieval costumes and headdresses all frozen in their medieval costumes.

    • Myriads of interesting scenes and figures line the dark corridors of the Shitthaung Rakhine men boxing and wresting; some girls dancing and playing; mythical birds, beasts and half human celestials and demons, the figures of both male and female Vasundhra / Vasundhari symbolizing the god/ goddess of the heath.
    • King Min Ba (AD 1513-1553) built this Temple-fortress temple after repulsing a Portuguese attack.
    • The Andaw (the tooth relic of Buddha) was built on a small hilloks by King Min Hla Raza in 1521. A hollow octagonal building made of pure sandstone blocks two internal concentric passages, with a prayer hall on the east. Frescoes depict detailed pictorial portrayals of life in the Mrauk U court.
    • The Dukkhanthein (Sima or Ordination Hall, the Koethaing, the Laymyetnar and the Shwe Daung Pagodas are also prominent historical and cultural resources.
    • The pagodas in Mrauk U are full of stone carvings and high relief lining the walls and Buddha images of all sizes in the shrines, They were also cast in bronze or an alloy of five metals (gold, silver, zinc, copper, tin)
    • The most famous cast bronze image is the Mahamuni.
    • Fortresses surround the city wall, built very steep of stone bricks and blocks on the mountain ranges in alignment with natural features of the mountain ranges
    • Fortresses still survive until today.
       

  5. Authenticity and integrity
    • According to the Rakhine historical records during, the period between Wethali and Mrauk U eras in about 1200, some capital cities were founded at Lemro, Purin, Naiyizaya and Launggyet. Mrauk U remained to be the capital of Rakhine monarchs from approximately AD 1400 to AD 1784.
  6. Degree of survival of the archaeological remains, human values, ways of life, customs, land use events and luring traditions.
    • The Department of Archaeology under the Ministry of Culture has located the sites of the ancient cities of the Danyawaddi and Wethali and excavations have begun at Wethali.
    • The palace walls, moat, pound, palace site, pagodas, stupas , monasteries of Mrauk U are still standing in evidence.
    • The archaeological museum in Mrauk U displays objects of antiquity, stone inscriptions, ancient arts and handicrafts such as stone sculpture, porcelain glazed pottery, carvings and bronze castings.
    • At the Bandoola Monastery, there are many ancient Buddha images and other carvings and sculptures pertaining to Buddhism.
    • Archaeologists have discovered and compiled an inventory of the (13) granaries. Win Ma Na granary is now being preserved by the Archaeology Department of the Mrauk U Branch Office.
    • The water gates and the sluices built of stones are still in good condition.
    • The other tourist sites and tourism activities on Mrauk U are
    • Thatch roof making
    • Royal Palace stone walls and moats
    • Excursion trip in Lemro River
    • Wethali ancient city
    • Kyauktaw Mahamuni Image
    • Ponenakyun
    • Laungkyat Mountain stone inscription

Site protection and conservation

  1. Existence of management control / measures to ensure that the site capacity (in terms of resources and facilities can absorb tourism activities)
    • Mrauk U possess abundant natural and cultural resources and can, therefore, categorize it as a cultural heritage site of 15th century monuments and edifices.
    • The Archaeology Department the Fine Arts Department and Cultural Institute Department under the Ministry of Culture have the following objectives for the conservation of ancient monuments and antiquities.
    • To prepare and implement a master plans for the preservation and restoration of national cultural heritage of the country.
    • To promote capacity building and skills for preservation, conservation and restoration work.


  2. Implementation of preventive measures, management mechanism to minimize degradation of resources
    1. Myanmar Tourism Law prescribes that hotel and tourism industry shall not cause damage to or destruction of cultural heritage and natural scenic beauty
    2. Ancient Monuments Preservation Act and Amendment Act
    3. Myanmar Monuments and Antiquities Law
    4. Law for the Protection of Cultural Heritage Sites and ancient cities.
    5. Myanmar Cultural Heritage Presentation Preservation Protection Central Committee
    6. Inventory of national cultural heritage is developed by preparing a photogram mating records and place them in the National Achieves
    7. Guidelines and manual on conservation and restoration techniques are prepared and disseminated to technical staff.
    8. Legal and institutional mechanism are reviewed and if necessary revamped.
    9. Education and trainings are conducted to conservation engineers.
    10. Community participation in conservation and restoration is encouraged.

Tourism and site management

  1. Appropriate tourism activities compatible with local heritage values and character.
    • Rakhine culture has a unique quality that blends to show their physical process, the Rakhines have a wresting called Kyinkain. Their grand boat racings recall the days of their strong naval force.
    • During Thingyan Water Festival, their love for boats is depicted with their use of a ling boat for splashing water. Their music, dances and songs show the simplicity and beauty of their cultural life.
  2. Involvement of Local Communities in the development and the Management of the cultural and natural heritage site
    The Regional Authorities viz the Rakhine State Peace and Development Council lays down the guidelines which are implemented down the line. The preservation and conservation activities are undertaken by the local authorities and the local communities on a self reliant basis through cash donation collected.
  3. Creation of jobs that encourage the use of local knowledge skills and traditions
    The local people are skilful stone and wood sculptors, and bronze casting. The Rakhine handwoven cloths are popular handicrafts. Thazin, (Bulbophyllum auricomum in botanical term) is cultivated in Mrauk U.

    It is a royal celestial flower which has potential markets in all parts of Myanmar.

  4. The use of appropriate off site and on site interpretive media to educate visitors such as
    • Signage / panel
    • Brochure
    • Visual / audio presentation
    • Guide book
    • Special events

    The signage is “Tourism for Everyone”
    Tourism Promotional Materials such as Visitors’ Guide Book (Myanmar) CD Roms and DVD include Mrauk U as a cultural heritage destination. Radio broadcasts on the development of tourism Myanmar includes Mrauk U. MRTV 3 which broadcast in English has programmes which promote Destinations in Myanmar and a visit to Mrauk U is televised. Mrauk U is also ASEAN mentioned on the websites maintained by ASEAN, GMS, BIMSTEC and ACMECS.

    The special events of Mrauk U which is promoted together with the destination is the Thingyan Water Festival celebrated with the traditional taste.

  5. Availability of well trained local guides / interpreters to serve visitors
    There are over (6000) trained and licensed tour guides who are available to serve as tour guides stationed in Mrauk U or from outside who are issued with a license by the Directorate of Hotels and Tourism to serve visitors to Mrauk U.
  6. Introduction of codes of conduct to educate visitors on what should or should not do when visiting the site
    1. Travellers’ Tips mentioned in all published Visitors’ Guide
    2. The licensed tour guides are trained to educate the visitors when visiting cultural heritage sites and ecotourism destinations. The dos and donts are regularly monitored by the Ministry of Hotels and Tourism. Child Wise Tourism Trainings are attended by the tour guides and hotel staff.
  7. Monitoring program in place to assess tourism impacts on the site
    The Fine Arts Department, Archaeology Department and the Cultural Institute under the Ministry of Cultural and the Myanmar Travels & Tours branch office of the Myanmar Hotels and Tourism Services under the Ministry of Hotels and Tourism work in close collaboration with the regional authorities who have direct monitoring to assess the impacts of tourism on Mrauk U.

Environmental Management

  1. Provision of appropriate and sufficient waste management system
    Under the UNICEF assisted Environmental Sanitation Project, appropriate and sufficient waste management system has been provided.
  2. Put in place waste water treatement
    National Level Water and Sanitation Committee and several international NGOs are actively participating for the prevention of any water borne and water related diseases involving the local communities to be involved in management cost sharing and for the promotion of awareness of the importance of waste water management.
  3. Zoning parking area for the site
    Mrauk U, Cultural Heritage Site has a zoning parking area whereby public housing and hotel buildings
  4. Control and regulated the entry of objects, materials and vehicles to the site
    The Entrance Fee of US$ 5 is collected at the Mrauk U Cultural Heritage Site. The Township Peace and Development Council, Customs Department and Immigration Department in Mrauk U regulate the entry of objects, materials and vehicles.

Accessibility

  1. Sufficient Infrastructure and facilities to enable easy and safe access to the site
    Mrauk U is accessible by air, land and sea routes via Sittway. The most convenient is one hour flying by plane from Yangon to Sittway. There are daily flights by Myanmar Airways; (6) times a week except Saturday by Air Mandalay; (3) times a week by Yangon Airways. It takes (4) hours by speed boats (via Sittway) and (8) hours by Myanmar Five Star Cruise. Overland travel takes (16) hours from Yangon to Sittway and the return (24) hours.
  2. Adequate and clear directional signage to the site
    The Tourist Maps published by the private sector are endorsed by Ministry of Hotels and Tourism and Mrauk U is clearly directed in them. There is a clear directional signage to the site at Sittway Airport.

Support facilities

  1. Adequacy of facilities such as medical care, F & B outlets, electricity water supply, restrooms, communication tools
    Mrauk U has (25) bed general hospital, private clinics and dispensaries for medical care. Mrauk U has (4) hotels with F & B outlets for visitors. As for public utilities, electricity supply is given daily in the evenings. The hotels run with their own generators for (24) hour electricity. International Direct Dialing and internet access is possible at the Hotels.
  2. Availability of skilled staff, officials / local guards and other measures to take care of safety and security for visitors
    Mrauk U is a safe tourist destination with good security. For safety and security of the visitors, there is the Tourism Police Unit in addition to the Mrauk U Township Peace and Development Council and the Government Departments.

    http://www.asean-tourism.com/heritage/myanmar.shtml

Mrauk U, Rakhine State, Myanmar

Posted: September 3, 2010 in Mrauk-U

Mrauk U, Rakhine State, Myanmar

For centuries, Mrauk U, the royal capital of Rakhine (Arakan), prospered on international trade and readily took in people and ideas from across the Asian continent and beyond, a flourishing civilization with the most cosmopolitan court in modern Myanmar history.
At its height in the mid-16th to mid-17th centuries, Mrauk U drew its wealth from the coastal trade with its neighboring countries. Its planning, architecture and sculpture were influenced by developments from beyond its shores. From the early centuries of the present era, Mrauk U was ruled by Rakhine (Arakanese) kings who adopted Rakhine, Pali and Indian titles and traditions to suit their own environment. Indian Brahmins conducted the royal ceremonial, Buddhist monks spread their teachings, traders came and went and artists and architects used Indian models for inspiration.

Image:MapMraukU.png
In 1406, the rightful king Min Saw Mon had taken refuge in the neighboring sultanate of Bengal; he was not able to return to his throne until 24 years later, with considerable help from the Bengal ruler. In 1454, he founded a new captial in the north of Rakhine, Mrauk U. His successors gave trade and territorial concessions to Portuguese, receiving in return, Portugese military support and help in building new fortifications. Empowered by this support, Mrauk U was able for a period to extend its area of influence west as far as Chittagong. Toward the end of 16th century, Rakhine pillaged Bago time and ruled for a short time the entire Ayeyarwady delta.

Modern Mrauk-U Township Map

https://i2.wp.com/6145973566221217210-a-1802744773732722657-s-sites.googlegroups.com/site/kogyikyawarakan/other-information/file/Mrauk-U.JPG
In 1629, the Portuguese Augustine missionary Sebastiao Manrique lived for several years in the city, which then had a population of 160,000 and wrote in glowing terms of the splendid court and the wealth that was evident everywhere. Only when the British occupation began in 1826 and the seat of administration was moved to Sittwe (Akyab) did Mrauk U lose its pre-eminent position. In all 49 kings are said to have resided in Mrauk U for 354 years.
Today Mrauk U is a small quiet town with a large number of pagodas and temples scattered all around. Unlike the people of Bagan, the inhabitants are still living among these religious edifices and have so far escaped expulsion. On almost every hill you will see sandstone pagodas in varying degrees of decay. Tourists are a rarity here and are treated by the locals with a mixture of sceptical reserve and cheerful curiosity. Every day life seems archaic, with water drawn from the well, and the main form of transport being bicycles and oxcarts.

More about Mrauk-U

Ref: http://myanmartravel.org/rakhine-state/mrauk-u.html